- 95% are endometrial cancers
- Mainly caused by unopposed oestrogen.
- Endometrial hyperplasia caused by prolonged unopposed oestrogenic stimulation
- o Hyperplasia with cytological atypia = increased nuclear / cytoplasmic ratio, hyperchromasia and loss of cell polarity.
- o 20% will progress to adenocarcinoma
- o Hyperplasia without cytological atypia = benign
- Diagnosis: abnormal uterine bleeding, abnormal smear, abnormal biopsy
- Tx: oral contraceptives or progestins (fertility sparing). If cytologic atypia = hysterectomy