• Posts Tagged ‘Gastroenterology’

    Metabolic and Alcoholic Liver Disease

    by  • 14/05/2013 • Gastroenterology • 0 Comments

    Alcoholic liver disease: o Relationship between chronic liver disease and alcohol use is complex o Excess alcohol = chronic liver disease o However personal susceptibility varies and alcohol-related pathology is increasingly seen in individuals who drink minimal amounts of alcohol (=non-alcoholic steatohepatitis = NASH) o Of all the people who drink excess alcohol –...

    Read more →

    Hepatitis

    by  • 13/05/2013 • Gastroenterology • 0 Comments

    Viral Hepatitis Hep A virus (HAV): o Common cause of transient hep, no long term carriage, often occurs in epidemics o Faeco-oral transmission o After 5/52 infection = IgM peaks and IgG continues to rise o 50% are subclinical (=have IgG to HAV without jaundice) o Jaundice: most common presentation in an acute hep....

    Read more →

    Acute and Chronic Liver Disease

    by  • 11/05/2013 • Gastroenterology • 0 Comments

    Acute hepatitis:  Non-specific term for acute, self-limiting liver inflammation  p/c: jaundice, nausea, anorexia, RUQ pain, fever, fatigue, orange urine, occasional substantial intrahepatic cholestasis (=white stools)  Causes: o Common = viral hepatitis A/B, EBV, drug reactions (=paracetamol) o Uncommon = autoimmune hepatitis o Rare = Wilson’s disease, toxins  Ix: o LFTs:...

    Read more →

    Pancreatitis

    by  • 10/05/2013 • Gastroenterology • 0 Comments

    Acute pancreatitis:  Acute destructive inflammation of pancreas  Incidence 40-500/mil (varying with rate of alcohol consumption and incidence of GS)  Incidence is increasing and mortality is falling  p/c: jaundice (if deep = GS/cholangitis), cyanosis, ARDS (T1 RF), metabolic problems (hypo-/hyperglycaemia, hypocalcaemia), acute renal failure, Grey-Turner sign (=bruising in flanks), DIC and...

    Read more →

    Biliary Disease

    by  • 09/05/2013 • Gastroenterology • 0 Comments

     Gallstone disease: ‘female, fat, fertile and forty!’  Stones occur in 7% of men and 15% of women aged 18-65yo  Prevalence is underestimated because 90% are asymptomatic  Pathophysiology: gallstones form due to precipitation of cholesterol crystals in supersaturated bile. Increase in size by 2.5mm/y  Clinical features: o Asymptomatic = GS...

    Read more →

    Coeliac Disease- Malabsorption

    by  • 07/05/2013 • Gastroenterology • 0 Comments

     Most common cause of malabs in the west  Common, 1/150 (in Ireland), 1/300 (England), peak incidence 20-40yo  Due to allergic reaction to the gliaden fraction of wheat germ. Initially causes an increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes in the small intestinal epitheliumprogresses to flattening of intestinal villi (villous atrophy), strong HLA (human leukocyte...

    Read more →

    Abnormal Liver Function Tests

    by  • 05/05/2013 • Gastroenterology • 0 Comments

     Often abnormal LFTs accompany specific symptoms  Sometimes abnormal LFTs can be seen in well/asymptomatic patients and warrant further investigation  In these patients, the abnormal test may herald an underlying disease and it is then prudent to make a diagnosis to make prognostic and therapeutic decisions.  Causes of abnormal LFTs: o...

    Read more →

    Iron Deficiency due to GI Pathology

    by  • 03/05/2013 • Gastroenterology • 0 Comments

     2 causes of iron deficiency:   1. Reduced absorption in GI tract: due to mucosal disease (=coeliac disease ), duodenal bypass (=polagastrectomy) or dietary deficiency. 2. Chronic blood loss: due to menstrual bleeding, PU disease, GI neoplasia (colonic adenomatous polyps, caecal/gastric/rectal carcinoma),...

    Read more →

    Diverticular Disease

    by  • 02/05/2013 • Gastroenterology • 0 Comments

     Many elderly people have asymptomatic ‘diverticula change’ or ‘diverticulosis’  Prevalence: 50% >50yo  Pathophysiology: may be genetic predisposition, but best considered an acquired condition. Those with Marfan’s and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome tend to develop diverticula earlier in life.  P/c: – tend to present with ‘complications’ rather than symptoms of diverticular change… o...

    Read more →