- o decreased ejection fraction (less than 45%).
- o inadequate stroke volume, resulting in inadequate cardiac output.
- o Because the ventricle is inadequately emptied, ventricular end-diastolic pressure and volumes increase.
- o This is transmitted to the atrium. On the left side of the heart, the increased pressure is transmitted to the pulmonary vasculature, and the resultant hydrostatic pressure favors extravassation of fluid into the lung parenchyma, causing pulmonary edema. (LHF = LUNG!)
- o On the right side of the heart, the increased pressure is transmitted to the systemic venous circulation and systemic capillary beds, favoring extravassation of fluid into the tissues of target organs and extremities, resulting in dependent peripheral oedema, fatigue, hepatomegaly, cerebral, ascites, nausea (RHF = SYSTEMIC!)