Present if sneezing attacks, nasal discharge or blockage occur for more than an hour on most days for:
- A limited period of the year = Seasonal rhinitis (‘Hayfever’): allergic, 2-20% incidence, most common in teens, p/c: nasal irritation, sneezing, rhinorrhoea, itching eyes/soft palate.
- Throughout the whole year = Perennial rhinitis: rarely affects eyes/throat, 50% have sneezing and watery rhinorrhoea, other half nasal blockage.
Aetiology – cause, risk factors
Major cause is allergy to the faecal particles of the house dust mite.
Mediated by efferent nerve fibres and by released mediators.
Mucus production (parasympathetic stimulation).
- Allergen avoidance
- Decongestants (adrenomimetic agents: agonists of alpha 1 and 2 receptors).
- o Xylometazoline
- o Oxymetazoline
- Anti-inflammatory drugs
- o Sodium cromoglicate (mast cell stabaliser): reduce histamine release.
- Being replaced by Monteleukast (leukotriene receptor antagonist).
- o Nedocromil sodium
- o Beclometasone