18/05/2013 by admin | Respiratory



Present if sneezing attacks, nasal discharge or blockage occur for more than an hour on most days for:

  1. A limited period of the year = Seasonal rhinitis (‘Hayfever’): allergic, 2-20% incidence, most common in teens, p/c: nasal irritation, sneezing, rhinorrhoea, itching eyes/soft palate.
  2. Throughout the whole year = Perennial rhinitis: rarely affects eyes/throat, 50% have sneezing and watery rhinorrhoea, other half nasal blockage.


Aetiology – cause, risk factors

Major cause is allergy to the faecal particles of the house dust mite.


Mediated by efferent nerve fibres and by released mediators.

Mucus production (parasympathetic stimulation).


  1. Allergen avoidance
  2. Antihistamines
  3. Decongestants (adrenomimetic agents: agonists of alpha 1 and 2 receptors).
    1. o Xylometazoline
    2. o Oxymetazoline
  4. Anti-inflammatory drugs
    1. o Sodium cromoglicate (mast cell stabaliser): reduce histamine release.
    2. Being replaced by Monteleukast (leukotriene receptor antagonist).
    3. o Nedocromil sodium
  5. Corticosteroids
    1. o Beclometasone   
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