Classification / type of disease:
- Tends to present in mid-20s
- Women twice as likely to develop
Presenting symptoms / signs:
- Intense episodes of extreme anxiety during panic attacks (last about ten minutes).
- Common symptoms of an attack include rapid heartbeat, perspiration, dizziness, dyspnea, trembling, uncontrollable fear and hyperventilation
- In addition, the person usually has thoughts of impending doom
- Attacks may be brought on by a certain stimulus, or may emanate out of nowhere
- The outward symptoms of a panic attack often cause negative social experiences (e.g. embarrassment, social stigma, social isolation, etc.).
- Limited symptom attacks are similar to panic attacks, but have fewer symptoms. Most people with PD experience both panic attacks and limited symptom attacks.
Diagnostic investigations: diagnosis by DSM-4 requires =unexpected, recurrent panic attacks, followed in at least once instance by at least a month of a significant and related behaviour change, a persistent concern of more attacks, or a worry about the attack’s consequence.
- Genetic, certain sedative medications, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol use, caffeine, and smoking.
- Symptoms may worsen if you abruptly withdraw from stimulant or sedative.
- The following may also cause = hypoglycemia, hyperthyroidism, mitral valve prolapse, labyrinthitis, pheochromocytoma and respiratory conditions.
Tend to have comorbidities = major depressive disorder (80%),dysthymic disorder (40%), generalized anxiety disorder (40%), somatoform disorders (40%), substance abuse (40%), and specific phobia (20%).
- CBT and psychotherapy
- Panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy
- Antidepressants = SSRIs, MAOIs, tricyclic antidepressants
- Anti-anxiety drugs = benzodiazepines