• Somatisation Disorder

    by  • 28/12/2013

    Definition Characterised by the following: Over 2 years of multiple, variable physical symptoms of no underlying cause (they are cause by psychological problems). Refusal to accept doctor’s reassurance. Impairment of social function Symptoms not intentionally produced   Patients often see many doctors of different specialties and undergo investigations with negative outcomes. There is often...

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    Adjustment Disorder

    by  • 27/12/2013

    Definition Defined as a state of emotional distress/reaction that interferes with social functioning, developing within 1 month of a significant life event. Adjustment disorder usually follows on from Post-traumatic stress disorder.   Causes Adults- financial/marital problems Adolescents- school/family/sexual issues Elderly- death of loved one, life changes   No way to predict which people are...

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    Depressive Disorder

    by  • 26/12/2013

    Clinical features Three core symptoms of depression: Low mood Anhydonia (loss of pleasure) Anergia (low energy)   Diagnosis A history of 2/3 core symptoms for min 2 weeks + 2 of the following seven symptoms: Decreased concentration Reduced self-esteem Guilt Pessimism about the future Self-harm ideation Disturbed sleep Reduced appetite   Severity of depression...

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    Schizoaffective Disorder

    by  • 25/12/2013

    Definition: A condition which has features of both schizophrenia and mood disorders. Epidemiology Less common than schizophrenia. No data figures for the UK. Commonly presents in early adulthood. Woman are more affected.   Diagnosis Diagnosed when the patient meets the full criteria for both a mood disorder and schizophrenia. Delusions or hallucinations need to...

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    by  • 24/12/2013

    Definition: Characterized by distortions in thought and perception together with psychotic symptoms. Intellect and clear consciousness are usually maintained. Distinguished from other psychoses by the absence of a mood disorder (Bi-polar, Depressive, Organic- hypothyroid, Cushings etc), specific hallucinations & thought disorder, and its clinical course.   Aetiology: The Dopamine hypothesis: symptoms are caused by...

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    by  • 22/12/2013

    Describe the basic principles and applications of: Counselling and supportive therapy Behavioural therapy (response prevention, systematic desensitisation, relaxation therapy) Cognitive therapy (including CBT and anxiety management) = CBT can be used to tx: personality conditions, behavioural problems, alcohol and drug abuse pts, stuttering, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, uni and bi-polar, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder,...

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    Knowledge & Understanding of Psychiatry

    by  • 22/12/2013

    Ethics: Autonomy: the duty to protect a patient’s freedom to choose Beneficence or non-malfeasance: the duty to do no harm Honesty and justice Respect Informed consent: The seven elements of informed consent (as defined by Beauchamp) include threshold elements (Competence and Voluntariness), information elements (Disclosure, Recommendation, and Understanding) and consent elements (Decision and Authorization). Confidentiality:Legal...

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    Bulimia Nervosa

    by  • 21/12/2013

    Diagnosis Diagnosis requires all three of the following: Binge eating Methods to prevent weight gain (vomiting, purging, laxatives) Morbid fear of fatness (overvalued idea, not a delusion)   Features: Individuals tend to be of a normal or above normal weight   Complications Caused by starvation and vomiting: Hypokalaemia Dehydration Enlargement of the parotid glands...

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    Psychopathology – Symptoms

    by  • 19/12/2013

    Delirium Dementia: “is a serious loss of cognitive ability (memory, attention, language, and problem solving) in a previously unimpaired person, beyond what might be expected from normal aging”. It may be static (fixed cognitive impairment), the result of a unique global brain injury, progressive (slow or fast depending on aetiology), resulting in long-term decline due to damage or disease in the body,...

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    by  • 18/12/2013

    Definition Pseudodementia is recognized in people with severe depression. Their apparent cognitive dysfunction is heavily affected by their lack of motivation.   2 Key questions to ask: Did low mood or poor memory come first? Answer is the mood disturbance precedes the cognitive impairment. Is the failure to answer questions due to lack of...

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