16/07/2014 by admin | Ophthalmology


Few notes from K&C on the eye

Common disorders of the eye:

  • Refractive errors: due to shape of globe = myopic (too much refraction = short sighted) / hypermetropic (too little = long sighted)
  • Disorders of the lids: entropion (lid margin rolled inwards), ectropion (rolled outwards), dacrocystitis (inflammed lacrimal sac), blepharitis (blockage of meibomian galngs leading to swelling of lid = chalazion)


  • Bacterial (only 5% of all conjunctivitis) – often gonococcal, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, S. Aureus, moraxella, chlamydia.
  • Viral: highly contagious, HSV, molluscum contagiosum
  • Allergic: seasonal, perennial, vernal, atopic and giant papillary

Corneal disorders: abrasions, foreign body, trauma, keratitis (general corneal inflammation)

Plus: cataracts, glaucoma, uveitis, disorders of retina.

  • The white of the eye = sclera, is covered by a clear layer = conjunctiva
  • The pink gooey bit in the medial part of eye = caruncle
  • Coloured part of eye = iris, covered over by a clear layer = cornea
  • Average diameter of human eye = 24mm
  • The cornea is 12mm x 11mm and provides 78% of the focusing power of the eye


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