- MEN processes are very rare conditions in which a single gene defect causes multiple endocrine tumours within the patient.
- MEN syndromes most commonly present with disorders of calcium metabolism
- Probands and their families need to be screened regularly for new malignancies.
- MEN 1: parathyroid hyperplasia 95%, pituitary adenoma 70%, pancreatic islet cell tumour 40%, adrenal and thyroid adenomas, mutation in a recessive oncogene on C11q13 – encoding menin
- MEN 2a: medullary thyroid cancer , parathyroid hyperplasia, phaechromocytoma 70% bilateral
- MEN 2b: has a marfanoid habitus with mucosal neuromas. Dominant oncogene on C10 (ret proto-oncogene).