Myelodysplastic syndrome (pre-leukaemic state) = refractory anaemia +/- myeloblasts, chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. Myelodysplastic sydrome = are a diverse collection of hematological conditions united by ineffective production of myeloid blood cells and risk of transformation to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Signs/symptoms: anaemia, neutropaenia, thrombocytopaenia, spplenomegally, can be asymptomatic. RFs include radiation and benzene. Tx: focus on redcuing risk of progression onto myeloid leukaemia. Drugs include 5-azacytidine, decitabine, lenaliodmide.prognosis and outcome based on various indicators (age/levels of deficiency..)
Others of reasonable note:
Myeloma: malignant tumour of plasma cells, producing abnormal Ab’s (paraproteins / if seen in urine = bence jones proteins, if found in blood = free light chains). HyperCalcaemia, renal, anaemia, bone (“CRAB”).