• Cardiology

    Heart Failure

    by  • 17/08/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition Occurs when the heart is unable to maintain sufficient cardiac output to meet demands of the body (in essence left ventricular systolic dysfunction = LVSD) Low output cardiac failure = congestive heart failure (‘pump failure’). High output cardiac failure = when the body’s requirements for oxygen and nutrients are increased, and demand outstrips...

    Read more →

    Secondary causes of hypertension

    by  • 15/08/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition Where blood pressure elevation is the result of a specific and potentially treatable cause. Incidence 10% of hypertension cases. Aetiology – cause, risk factors  Renal disease (80% of secondary hypertension) – impair volume regulation and/or activate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Sodium and water retention, but there can be inappropriate elevation of plasma renin...

    Read more →

    Hypertension

    by  • 14/08/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition  Hypotension: <90 / <60  Normal: 90-139 / 60-89  Mild HTN: 140-159 / 90-99  Moderate HTN: 160-179 / 100-109  Severe HTN: >180 / >110  Malignant HTN (and imminent secondary organ damage): >200 / >140   Incidence  20-30% of the adult population (urban, western disease)  40-45% in...

    Read more →

    Libmann Sacks Endocarditis

    by  • 13/08/2013 • Cardiology

    (sterile endocarditis): in patients with SLE, composed of many small vegetations on valves or endocardium. Precipitating an inflammatory response. N.B: I.E tends to produce large bulky vegetations. 

    Read more →