• Cardiology

    Pericardial Effusion and Cardiac Tamponade

    by  • 24/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition Pericardial effusion = abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity. Because of the limited amount of space in the pericardial cavity, fluid accumulation will lead to an increased intrapericardial pressure and this can negatively affect heart function. When there is a pericardial effusion with enough pressure to adversely affect heart function, this...

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    Hyperlipidaemia

    by  • 23/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition  raised or abnormal levels of any or all lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood. o familial (also called primary) caused by specific genetic abnormalities o acquired (also called secondary) when resulting from another underlying disorder that leads to alterations in plasma lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. - Normal values: - Total cholesterol: normal...

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    Atherosclerosis

    by  • 21/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition  Artery wall thickens as the result of a build-up of fatty materials such as cholesterol, causing a chronic oxidation / inflammatory response in the walls of arteries, in large part due to the accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by low-density lipoproteins (LDL) without adequate removal of fats and cholesterol...

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    Ischaemic Heart Disease (IHD)

    by  • 18/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition  is a disease characterized by ischaemia (reduced blood supply) to the heart muscle, usually due to coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries). Can present as angina (stable & unstable), or as an MI (silent or symptomatic).    Stable angina = chest pain at determined levels of exercise (SOBOE). Reproducable....

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    Infective Endocarditis

    by  • 16/09/2013 • Cardiology

      Definition  is a form of endocarditis caused by infectious agents – often bacterial  can be short incubation (often staph), and long incubation (often strep)  if endocariditis in absence of organism = marantic endocarditis (no infective organism seen).    Some I.E. will not show organisms on testing = negative endocarditis...

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    Rheumatic Fever

    by  • 13/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition  Haemolytic inflammatory disease that occurs following a Group A streptococcal infection, (such as strep throat or scarlet fever).  caused by antibody cross-reactivity that can complicate the heart, joints, skin, and brain, the illness typically develops two to three weeks after a streptococcal infection.  Complications seen in 2% of all RF...

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    Congenital abnormalities of the vessels

    by  • 10/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Arteriovenous fistula Abnormal communication between an artery and vein Origin:  Primary = congenital o Secondary = trauma, inflammation or healed ruptured aneurysm    Fistulas may cause shunting of blood, bypassing circulations and increasing venous return, therefore increasing cardiac output.  May predispose to heart failure.  May be seen in Pagets disease...

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    Neoplastic Vascular Disease

    by  • 09/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Benign tumours and related conditions Hemangioma (=benign, children, strawberry lesion on face/scalp/CNS/liver/mucous membranes, can result of trauma ).  Common  Especially in children.  Make up approximately 7% of all benign tumours.   Capillary hemangioma o Occur mostly in skin and mucous membranes o Well-defined, encapsulated aggregates of capillaries o May be...

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    Cardiac Cancers

    by  • 05/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Neoplastic heart disease  Primary cardiac tumours  Extremely rare.  Increased risk of emboli/DVT/PE in neoplastic patients!   Myxoma  25% of primary cardiac tumours.  Presentation at any age but mostly in adults  75% occur in left atrium.  Can be polyploid or pedunculated masses, arising from undifferentiated connective tissue in...

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    Marfans Syndrome

    by  • 03/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition Connective tissue disorder (collagen synthesis), with a marfan habitus Incidence 1 in 5000 Presentation  Skeletal abnormalities:  Tall stature  Arm span greater than height  Arachnodactyly – long fingers  Sternal depression  Lax joints  High arched palate   Cardiovascular:  Ascending aortic aneurysm formation  Aortic dissection (p/c: tearing...

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