• Cardiology

    Physiology – Heart sounds

    by  • 11/10/2013 • Cardiology

     S1 = closure of AV valves  S2 = closure of aortic/pulmonary valves (A2 / P2)  Pathological murmurs = valve stenosis / regurg  Non-pathological = Still’s murmur = turbulence of flow in context of normal vales. A benign paediatric murmur. Position – dependant, soft (3/6), only in systole or pan (not...

    Read more →

    Mitral Regurgitation (most common)!

    by  • 08/10/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition mitral valve does not close properly when the heart pumps out blood. MR is the most common form of valve disease Secondary mitral regurgitation is due LVH, causing stretching of the mitral valve annulus and displacement of the papillary muscles. Presenting complaint  p/c: compensated, decompensated (=LHF = SOB, pulmonary oedema, decreased exercise...

    Read more →

    Mitral Stenosis

    by  • 07/10/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition characterized by the narrowing of the orifice of the mitral valve of the heart Presenting complaint  p/c: dyspnoea, palpitations, ftigue, haemoptysis, large LA, (+AF), loud S1 and S2.  first heart sound is unusually loud (loud M1: mitral valve closure) and may be palpable (tapping apex beat)  If PAH = secondary...

    Read more →

    Pulmonary Stenosis

    by  • 06/10/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition: is a valvular heart disease in which outflow of blood from the right ventricle of the heart is obstructed at the level of the pulmonic valve = reduced blood flow to lungs Epidemiology: accounts for 80% of R-outflow tract obstruction Clinical presentation: raised JVP, cyanosis, RVH, hepatomegaly, oedema, and if severe – sudden...

    Read more →

    Aortic Regurgitation

    by  • 03/10/2013 • Cardiology

    Epidemiology: 50% due to aortic root dilatation (idiopathic or due to HTN/ageing), can be due to bicuspid aortic valve (15%), rheumatic fever (+endocarditis), marfans syndrome, aortic dissection, syphilis, SSRIs, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, acromegaly, osteogenesis imperfecta, ehlers danlos syndrome, reiters syndrome. Clinical presentation: dyspnoea, palpitations, collapsing pulse, LVH/HF (due to pressure and volume overload)....

    Read more →

    Aortic Stenosis

    by  • 01/10/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition: incomplete opening of the AV. Under some circumstances, the AV becomes narrower than normal, impeding the flow. Epidemiology: prevalence of AS in population = 2% >65yo, 3% >75yo, 4% >85yo. Clinical presentation: “SAD” triad. Syncope, angina, dyspnoea. In heydes syndrome = AS and angiodysplasia of the colon causing CRC. Risk factors: Rheumatic fever,...

    Read more →

    Valvular Heart Disease

    by  • 30/09/2013 • Cardiology

    is any disease process involving one or more of the valves of the heart  Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect with four abnormalities, one of which is stenosis of the pulmonary valve.  Ebstein’s anomaly is an abnormality of the tricuspid valve  Rheumatic fever was in the past a common...

    Read more →

    Cardiac Tamponade

    by  • 29/09/2013 • Cardiology

     a collection of fluid in the pericardial space which puts pressure on the ventricles of the heart and limits it ability to fill and pump effectively.  The end result is ineffective pumping of blood, shock, and often death.  Cardiac tamponade occurs when the pericardial space fills up with fluid faster than...

    Read more →

    Claudication (peripheral vascular disease)

    by  • 28/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition  Intermittent vascular claudication usually refers to cramping pains in the legs (usually the calf muscles, but may be in the thigh muscles) caused by poor circulation of the blood in the arteries to the leg muscles during exercise.  True claudication is relieved with rest from exercise.   Incidence Epidemiology  Atherosclerosis...

    Read more →


    by  • 27/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition is an inflammation of the pericardium Pericarditis can be classified according to the composition of the inflammatory exudate Types include:  serous – lacking any blood cells/clotting factors  purulent – pus  fibrinous  caseous –cheesy, granulomatous  hemorrhagic – bloody  post infarction   Acute pericarditis is more common than chronic...

    Read more →