• Hypokalaemia/Hyperkalaemia

    by  • 28/04/2013 • Renal • 0 Comments

    Hypokalaemia:  Serum potassium <3.5mmol/L  Mostly attributed by diuretic therapy (increased losses from urinary/GI tracts), poor intake (eating disorders), or a shift to the intracellular compartment (insulin use, or familial periodic paralysis). o GI losses = vomiting and diarrhoea, laxative abuse, villus adenoma of colon. o Renal losses = diuretics, mineralocorticoid excess (Conn’s...

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    Renal Physiology and Renal Function

    by  • 28/04/2013 • Renal • 0 Comments

    Renal physiology and renal function  1 x kidney = 1 x million nephrons  Each nephron: glomerulus located in cortex – filters into renal tubule and LoH (main site of water and electrolytes reabsorption). Urine drains to collecting duct. Further water reabsorption. Drains to renal pyramids.  Thick ascending limb of LoH attaches...

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