• Vitreous haemorrhage

    by  • 16/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

    Definition: bleeding into the middle chamber of the eye obscuring vision. Often self limiting and will resolve spontaneously, but may need investigation for its cause – often diabetic retinopathy Classification / type of disease: Epidemiology Presenting symptoms / signs: Sudden onset of floaters causing impaired vision or total loss of vision. Depending on the...

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    Retinal detachment

    by  • 16/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

    Definition: is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. Initial detachment may be localized, but without rapid treatment the entire retina may detach, leading to vision loss and blindness. It is a medical emergency. Classification / type of disease: Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment –...

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    Anterior Ischaemic optic neuropathy

    by  • 16/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

    Definition: is a medical condition involving loss of vision due to damage to the optic nerve from insufficient blood supply Classification / type of disease: AION is generally divided into two types: arteritic AION (or AAION) and non-arteritic AION (NAION or simply AION). This article will focus primarily on non-arteritic AION. Epidemiology Presenting symptoms...

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    Ocular ischaemic syndrome

    by  • 16/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

    Definition:is the constellation of ocular signs and symptoms secondary to severe, chronic arterial hypoperfusion to the eye, often secondary to carotid artery stenosis. Amaurosis fugax is a form of acute vision loss caused by reduced blood flow to the eye that may be a warning sign of an impending stroke. Classification / type of disease: Epidemiology: typically between 50-80, M:F (2:1). Presenting symptoms / signs:vision...

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    Retinal vein occlusion

    by  • 16/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

    The central retinal vein is the venous equivalent of the central retinal artery, and like that blood vessel can suffer from occlusion (central retinal vein occlusion = CRVO), similar to that seen in ocular ischemic syndrome. Since the central retinal artery and vein are the sole source of blood supply and drainage for the retina, such occlusion can lead to...

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    The red eye

    by  • 16/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

      Conjunctivitis: (infective, dry eye, allergic), very common, sticky/gritty/itchy/stringy discharge, redness throughout entire sclera and both eye lids. Tx = topical chloramphenicol/lubricant/mast stabaliser. Episcleritis: irritation, sectorial redness (one side of iris only), no lid involvement. No Tx required Iritis (anterior uveitis): pain, moderate photophobia, redness of eye around cornea and constricted pupil. Tx topical...

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    Ophthalmology

    by  • 16/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

      Few notes from K&C on the eye Common disorders of the eye: Refractive errors: due to shape of globe = myopic (too much refraction = short sighted) / hypermetropic (too little = long sighted) Disorders of the lids: entropion (lid margin rolled inwards), ectropion (rolled outwards), dacrocystitis (inflammed lacrimal sac), blepharitis (blockage of...

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    Mixed Connective Tissue Diseases (+Misc?):

    by  • 15/07/2014 • Rheumatology

     Lupus: o Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) o Drug induced lupus o Discoid Lupus Erythematosus   Antiphospholipid syndrome   Raynaud’s syndrome   Polymyositis   Systemic sclerosis and CREST syndrome   Sjogren’s syndrome   Polymyalgia rheumatic (PMR) and giant cell arteritis (GCA)   Vasculitis o Erythema nodosum o Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) o Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN)...

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    ICD-10 and DSM-4

    by  • 03/01/2014 • Psychiatry

    ICD-10: designed by the WHO, ICD-10 is composed of 22 chapters, each focusing on a different part of medicine (CV/resp/psychiatric/GU/MSK)… Psych is chapter 5 and broken into 11 main strands, these are as follows = Chapter 5: ‘Mental and behavioural disorders’:         F00-F09 Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders F10-F19 Mental and...

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    Vascular Dementia

    by  • 01/01/2014 • Psychiatry

    Definition Vascular dementia is an ischaemic disorder characterized by multiple small cerebral infarcts in the cortex and white matter. It is not a single disease but a group of syndromes relating to different vascular mechanisms. The distinction between vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s dementia is becoming increasingly blurred because vascular risk factors play a role...

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