Classification / type of disease: AION is generally divided into two types: arteritic AION (or AAION) and non-arteritic AION (NAION or simply AION). This article will focus primarily on non-arteritic AION.
Presenting symptoms / signs:
- NAION typically presents suddenly and upon awakening. The patient notes seeing poorly in one eye. Vision in that eye is obscured by a dark shadow, often involving just the upper or lower half of vision, usually the area towards the nose.
- There may be improvement or worsening of sight over next 6 months.
- Second eye involvement occurs in approximately 15% to 20% of patients with NAION within 5 years
- AAION symptoms: painful jaw muscle spasms, scalp tenderness, unintentional weight loss, fatigue, myalgias and loss of appetite)
- Optic disc shape
- Cardiovascular risk factors: HTN, DM, high cholesterol. Plus big risk factor linked to nocturnal arterial hypotension
Treatment / management: high dose corticosteroid therapy