• Archive for July, 2014

    Dry eye syndrome (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)

    by  • 29/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

    Definition: occurs when there is a problem with the tear film that normally keeps the eye moist and lubricated. It can occur as a result of various conditions.The tear film is made up from three layers – the main middle watery layer, the thin outer lipid (oily) layer, and the thin inner mucus layer....

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    Amblyopia

    by  • 26/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

    Definition: is caused by either no transmission or poor transmission of the visual stimulation through the optic nerve to the brain for a sustained period of dysfunction or during early childhood thus resulting in poor or dim vision Classification / type of disease: Strabismic amblyopia: amblyopia caused by excessive strabismus Abnormal vision in abnormal...

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    Transmission

    by  • 25/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

    Treatment / management:   Surgery does not change the vision; it attempts to align the eyes by shortening, lengthening, or changing the position of one or more of the extraocular eye muscles and is frequently the only way to achieve cosmetic improvement. Glasses affect the position by changing the person’s reaction to focusing. Prisms...

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    Epidemiology

    by  • 22/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

    Presenting symptoms / signs:One eye moves normally, while the other points in (esotropia), out (exotropia), up (hypertropia) or down (hypotropia), double vision is a common symptom. Diagnostic investigations:  ‘The Cover Test’ = to aid in the diagnosis of strabismus. If the eye being tested is the strabismic eye, then it will fixate on the object...

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    Squints / misaligned eyes (= strabismus)

    by  • 20/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

    Definition: a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. Classification / type of disease: ‘wandering’ can be either uni-/bilateral. Strabismus can be congenital, acquired or secondary in nature Paralytic strabismus: Third (oculomotor) nerve palsy, Fourth (trochlear) nerve palsy, Congenital fourth nerve palsy, Sixth (abducent) nerve palsy, Total (external) ophthalmoplegia, Progressive...

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    Vitreous haemorrhage

    by  • 16/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

    Definition: bleeding into the middle chamber of the eye obscuring vision. Often self limiting and will resolve spontaneously, but may need investigation for its cause – often diabetic retinopathy Classification / type of disease: Epidemiology Presenting symptoms / signs: Sudden onset of floaters causing impaired vision or total loss of vision. Depending on the...

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    Retinal detachment

    by  • 16/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

    Definition: is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. Initial detachment may be localized, but without rapid treatment the entire retina may detach, leading to vision loss and blindness. It is a medical emergency. Classification / type of disease: Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment –...

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    Anterior Ischaemic optic neuropathy

    by  • 16/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

    Definition: is a medical condition involving loss of vision due to damage to the optic nerve from insufficient blood supply Classification / type of disease: AION is generally divided into two types: arteritic AION (or AAION) and non-arteritic AION (NAION or simply AION). This article will focus primarily on non-arteritic AION. Epidemiology Presenting symptoms...

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    Ocular ischaemic syndrome

    by  • 16/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

    Definition:is the constellation of ocular signs and symptoms secondary to severe, chronic arterial hypoperfusion to the eye, often secondary to carotid artery stenosis. Amaurosis fugax is a form of acute vision loss caused by reduced blood flow to the eye that may be a warning sign of an impending stroke. Classification / type of disease: Epidemiology: typically between 50-80, M:F (2:1). Presenting symptoms / signs:vision...

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    Retinal vein occlusion

    by  • 16/07/2014 • Ophthalmology

    The central retinal vein is the venous equivalent of the central retinal artery, and like that blood vessel can suffer from occlusion (central retinal vein occlusion = CRVO), similar to that seen in ocular ischemic syndrome. Since the central retinal artery and vein are the sole source of blood supply and drainage for the retina, such occlusion can lead to...

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