• Archive for December, 2013

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)

    by  • 08/12/2013 • Psychiatry

    Definition CJD is a rapidly progressive dementia caused by prions (infectious agents composed only of protein). The prion proteins can be transmitted by neurosurgical instruments and huma-derived pituitary hormones.   Features Features include rapid cognitive impairment, which may be preceeded by anxiety and depression. Eventually, physical features become prominent, including muscle disturbance (rigidity, tremor,...

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    Pathophysiology

    by  • 07/12/2013 • Psychiatry

    Prevention: behavioural intervention (interpersonal therapy) Treatment / management: Psychotherapy = medication should only be offered if psychotherapy has been tried or is currently being used. Psychotherapy includes = CBT, interpersonal therapy, family therapy.. Antidepressants = most used are SSRIs (good effect, low s/e’s, and not too toxic, esp in overdosage). Atypical anti-depressant = buproprion....

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    Depression

    by  • 06/12/2013 • Psychiatry

    Definition: a mental disorder characterized by an all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem, and by loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. Classification / type of disease: Melancholic depression is characterized by a loss of pleasure in most or all activities. S&S = early morning waking, psychomotor retardation, excessive weight loss,...

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    Bipolar Disorder

    by  • 05/12/2013 • Psychiatry

    Definition:the presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated energy levels, cognition, and mood (known as mania, or if lesser if degree – hypomania) with or without one or more depressive episodes these usually are separated by periods of normal mood. Classification / type of disease: Bipolar I disorder One or more manic episodes. Bipolar II disorder...

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    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    by  • 05/12/2013 • Psychiatry

    Definition Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be characterised by the presence of obsessions or compulsions, but commonly both, despite conscious resistance. It is equally common in males and females.   Obsessions are unwanted intrusive thoughts, images or urges that the person feels driven to perform. Attempts to resist them are usually unsuccessful.   Compulsions are...

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    Psychosis

    by  • 04/12/2013 • Psychiatry

    Definition: “a loss of contact with reality”. Classification / type of disease: Epidemiology:   Presenting symptoms / signs: Visual / auditoryhallucinations Delusional beliefs (some paranoid in nature) Personality changes Thought disorder (loosening of associations, that is, a disconnection and disorganization of the semantic content of speech and writing) Diagnostic investigations: The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) assesses...

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    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    by  • 03/12/2013 • Uncategorized

    Definition:can develop after exposure to any event that results in psychological trauma. This event may involve the threat of death to oneself or to someone else, or to one’s own or someone else’s physical, sexual, or psychological integrity, overwhelming the individual’s ability to cope. *** As an effect of psychological trauma, PTSD is less frequent and more...

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    Alzheimer’s disease

    by  • 03/12/2013 • Psychiatry

    Definition Alzheimer’s disease is a primary degenerative cerebral disease of unknown aetiology, affecting higher mental functions. It is the most common type of dementia accounts for 50-60% of dementia cases.   Physical Features Global brain atrophy, with deposition of Beta-amyloid protein plaques in the brain.   Clinical features Gradual progressive cognitive decline (can be...

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    Specific focus on Dementia with Lewy Bodies Disease

    by  • 03/12/2013 • Psychiatry

    Definition: Epidemiology:   60 to 75% = Alzheimer’s and mixed (Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia) type 10 to 15% are Lewy body type Remaining types being of an entire spectrum of dementias including frontotemporal lobar degeneration, alcoholic dementia, pure vascular dementia, etc Presenting symptoms / signs:   Fluctuating cognition with great variations in attention and alertness from day...

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    Schizophrenia

    by  • 03/12/2013 • Psychiatry

    Definition:disintegration of thought processes and of emotional responsiveness Classification / type of disease: Schizophrenia can be subtyped depending on predominant symptoms = Paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, Epidemiology:   Typically occurs in young adulthood Global lifetime prevalence of about 0.3–0.7%. Presenting symptoms / signs:   Auditory hallucinations Paranoia = a thought process influenced by anxiety or fear...

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