• Archive for October, 2013


    by  • 15/10/2013 • Haematology

    Definition:  is decreased RBCs, or decreased quantity Hb.   Also, reduced quality of Hb can also be classed as anaemia (with reduced 02 binding properties).   The three main classes of anemia include excessive blood loss (acutely such as a hemorrhage or chronically through low-volume loss), excessive blood cell destruction (hemolysis) or deficient red blood cell...

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    Physiology – Heart sounds

    by  • 11/10/2013 • Cardiology

     S1 = closure of AV valves  S2 = closure of aortic/pulmonary valves (A2 / P2)  Pathological murmurs = valve stenosis / regurg  Non-pathological = Still’s murmur = turbulence of flow in context of normal vales. A benign paediatric murmur. Position – dependant, soft (3/6), only in systole or pan (not...

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    Mitral Regurgitation (most common)!

    by  • 08/10/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition mitral valve does not close properly when the heart pumps out blood. MR is the most common form of valve disease Secondary mitral regurgitation is due LVH, causing stretching of the mitral valve annulus and displacement of the papillary muscles. Presenting complaint  p/c: compensated, decompensated (=LHF = SOB, pulmonary oedema, decreased exercise...

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    Mitral Stenosis

    by  • 07/10/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition characterized by the narrowing of the orifice of the mitral valve of the heart Presenting complaint  p/c: dyspnoea, palpitations, ftigue, haemoptysis, large LA, (+AF), loud S1 and S2.  first heart sound is unusually loud (loud M1: mitral valve closure) and may be palpable (tapping apex beat)  If PAH = secondary...

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    Pulmonary Stenosis

    by  • 06/10/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition: is a valvular heart disease in which outflow of blood from the right ventricle of the heart is obstructed at the level of the pulmonic valve = reduced blood flow to lungs Epidemiology: accounts for 80% of R-outflow tract obstruction Clinical presentation: raised JVP, cyanosis, RVH, hepatomegaly, oedema, and if severe – sudden...

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    Aortic Regurgitation

    by  • 03/10/2013 • Cardiology

    Epidemiology: 50% due to aortic root dilatation (idiopathic or due to HTN/ageing), can be due to bicuspid aortic valve (15%), rheumatic fever (+endocarditis), marfans syndrome, aortic dissection, syphilis, SSRIs, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, acromegaly, osteogenesis imperfecta, ehlers danlos syndrome, reiters syndrome. Clinical presentation: dyspnoea, palpitations, collapsing pulse, LVH/HF (due to pressure and volume overload)....

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    Aortic Stenosis

    by  • 01/10/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition: incomplete opening of the AV. Under some circumstances, the AV becomes narrower than normal, impeding the flow. Epidemiology: prevalence of AS in population = 2% >65yo, 3% >75yo, 4% >85yo. Clinical presentation: “SAD” triad. Syncope, angina, dyspnoea. In heydes syndrome = AS and angiodysplasia of the colon causing CRC. Risk factors: Rheumatic fever,...

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