• Archive for September, 2013

    Valvular Heart Disease

    by  • 30/09/2013 • Cardiology

    is any disease process involving one or more of the valves of the heart  Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect with four abnormalities, one of which is stenosis of the pulmonary valve.  Ebstein’s anomaly is an abnormality of the tricuspid valve  Rheumatic fever was in the past a common...

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    Cardiac Tamponade

    by  • 29/09/2013 • Cardiology

     a collection of fluid in the pericardial space which puts pressure on the ventricles of the heart and limits it ability to fill and pump effectively.  The end result is ineffective pumping of blood, shock, and often death.  Cardiac tamponade occurs when the pericardial space fills up with fluid faster than...

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    Claudication (peripheral vascular disease)

    by  • 28/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition  Intermittent vascular claudication usually refers to cramping pains in the legs (usually the calf muscles, but may be in the thigh muscles) caused by poor circulation of the blood in the arteries to the leg muscles during exercise.  True claudication is relieved with rest from exercise.   Incidence Epidemiology  Atherosclerosis...

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    Pericarditis

    by  • 27/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition is an inflammation of the pericardium Pericarditis can be classified according to the composition of the inflammatory exudate Types include:  serous – lacking any blood cells/clotting factors  purulent – pus  fibrinous  caseous –cheesy, granulomatous  hemorrhagic – bloody  post infarction   Acute pericarditis is more common than chronic...

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    Pericardial Effusion and Cardiac Tamponade

    by  • 24/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition Pericardial effusion = abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity. Because of the limited amount of space in the pericardial cavity, fluid accumulation will lead to an increased intrapericardial pressure and this can negatively affect heart function. When there is a pericardial effusion with enough pressure to adversely affect heart function, this...

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    Hyperlipidaemia

    by  • 23/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition  raised or abnormal levels of any or all lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood. o familial (also called primary) caused by specific genetic abnormalities o acquired (also called secondary) when resulting from another underlying disorder that leads to alterations in plasma lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. - Normal values: - Total cholesterol: normal...

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    Atherosclerosis

    by  • 21/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition  Artery wall thickens as the result of a build-up of fatty materials such as cholesterol, causing a chronic oxidation / inflammatory response in the walls of arteries, in large part due to the accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by low-density lipoproteins (LDL) without adequate removal of fats and cholesterol...

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    Ischaemic Heart Disease (IHD)

    by  • 18/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition  is a disease characterized by ischaemia (reduced blood supply) to the heart muscle, usually due to coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries). Can present as angina (stable & unstable), or as an MI (silent or symptomatic).    Stable angina = chest pain at determined levels of exercise (SOBOE). Reproducable....

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    Infective Endocarditis

    by  • 16/09/2013 • Cardiology

      Definition  is a form of endocarditis caused by infectious agents – often bacterial  can be short incubation (often staph), and long incubation (often strep)  if endocariditis in absence of organism = marantic endocarditis (no infective organism seen).    Some I.E. will not show organisms on testing = negative endocarditis...

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    Rheumatic Fever

    by  • 13/09/2013 • Cardiology

    Definition  Haemolytic inflammatory disease that occurs following a Group A streptococcal infection, (such as strep throat or scarlet fever).  caused by antibody cross-reactivity that can complicate the heart, joints, skin, and brain, the illness typically develops two to three weeks after a streptococcal infection.  Complications seen in 2% of all RF...

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