• Archive for June, 2013

    Lower Respiratory Tract Infection

    by  • 12/06/2013 • Respiratory

    Lower respiratory tract infection Definition: An infection below the level of the vocal cords.  LRTIs = can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis.    Bronchitis can be classified as either acute or chronic. 40/1000 adults/y, and consists of transient inflammation via viral infection of...

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    Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

    by  • 11/06/2013 • Respiratory

    Upper respiratory tract infections Definition Infections in the nose, sinuses, pharynx or larynx (above level of vocal cords) Presenting complaint  rhinitis  pharyngitis/tonsillitis  laryngitis often referred to as a common cold, and their complications: sinusitis, ear infection and sometimes bronchitis.  Symptoms of URI’s commonly include cough, sore throat, runny nose, nasal...

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    Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP)

    by  • 10/06/2013 • Respiratory

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) Definition Pneumocystis is a yeast-like fungus commonly found in the lungs of healthy people, but being a source of opportunistic infection (pneumonia) it can cause a lung infection in immunocompromised (HIV-infected). Pneumocystis pneumonia is especially seen in people with cancer, HIV/AIDS, malnourished, very young, and the use of medications that affect...

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    Histoplasmosis

    by  • 09/06/2013 • Respiratory

    Histoplasmosis: Definition a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum primarily affecting the lungs. Symptoms can be silent and asymptomatic. In acute infection symptoms are often no-specific and flu like in nature. Chronic histo can resemble TB. P/c: HSM, lymphadenopathy, and adrenal enlargement. Lesions have a tendency to calcify as they heal. Epidemiology ...

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    Pneumothorax

    by  • 07/06/2013 • Respiratory

    Pneumothorax Definition Pneumothorax: Collection of air or gas in pleural cavity. Tension pneumothorax: life-threatening condition that results from a progressive deterioration and worsening of a simple pneumothorax, associated with the formation of a one-way valve at the point of a rupture in the lung Epidemiology  Young, tall, slim male – marfanoid habitus ...

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    Pulmonary embolism

    by  • 06/06/2013 • Respiratory

    Pulmonary embolism Definition  A blockage of the pulmonary artery, often caused by thrombo-embolism of a DVT.  Causes obstructed bloodflow through lungs and causes back up of blood. This puts pressure on the R-heart and this produces the symptoms of PE (RHF picture) – eventually leading to cor pulmonale over time.   Incidence...

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    Cystic Fibrosis

    by  • 05/06/2013 • Respiratory

    Cystic Fibrosis Definition:  Progressive pulmonary and pancreatic insufficiency.   Incidence:  A disease of western lineage – 1/25 europeans carry gene. Seen equally in M/F. If both parents carry – risk is ¼ (homozygous recessive).  UK incidence: 1/2500, Asia: 1/90,000!   Epidemiology Presenting complaint  Multisystem disease  Chronic lung infections include:...

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    Tuberculosis

    by  • 03/06/2013 • Respiratory

    Tuberculosis Incidence Worlds leading cause of death from a single infectious disease, with two million deaths in 2000. This is a result of:  Inadequate programmes for disease control with poorly supervised treatment (no DOTs)  Multiple drug resistance (MDR/XDR-TB): 6-7% is MDR, 25% of which is XDR. MDR-TB is resistant to R&I. XDR-TB...

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    Lung cancer

    by  • 02/06/2013 • Respiratory

    Lung cancer Definition  Bronchial carcinoma accounts for 95% of all primary tumours of the lung.  Alveolar cell carcinoma accounts for 2% of lung tumours.   Divided into: NON-SMALL-CELL CARCINOMA (NSCLC) 1. Squamous or epidermoid carcinoma 40%  Most likely to be central  S’s = Squamous, smoking, slow, sentral!   2. Adenocarcinoma...

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