• Optic neuritis

    by  • 16/08/2014

    Definition: is the inflammation of the optic nerve that may cause a complete or partial loss of vision. Classification / type of disease: Epidemiology: Young adults ranging from 18–45 years of age, with a mean age of 30–35 years. Strong female predominance. The annual incidence is approximately 5/100,000, with a prevalence estimated to be...

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    Thyroid eye disease

    by  • 12/08/2014

    Definition: is an organ-specific idiopathic auto-immune disease. It is characterised by an active inflammatory orbital phase lasting months to years, followed by an ‘inactive’ fibrotic phase.It can be sight-threatening as acute progressive disease affects the optic nerve and cornea. Most patients with thyroid eye disease (TED) have clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyper/hypothyroidism but...

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    by  • 07/08/2014

    Definition: a drooping of the upper or lower eyelid – which may worsen when the patient tires. Ptosis can lead to ambylopia (abnormal development of brain due to reduced stimulation during development) or astigmatism (inability to point focus an image onto the retina – often linked to irregular eye dimensions). Classification / type of...

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    Eye Lid Disease (blepharitis)

    by  • 04/08/2014

    Definition: is an inflammation of the eyelids that involves the edges of the eyelids and eyelash hair follicles. Classification / type of disease:It may be classified as seborrhoeic, staphylocccal, mixed, posterior or meiobomitis, or parasitic Staphylococcal blepharitis: caused by infection of the anterior portion of the eyelid by Staphylococcal bacteria. As the infection progresses, the...

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    Watering eyes

    by  • 01/08/2014

    Definition: Classification / type of disease: Epidemiology:Watering eyes (tears rolling onto your cheeks) can occur at any age, but is most common in young babies and in people over the age of 60. It can occur in one or both eyes. Presenting symptoms / signs: profuse watering Diagnostic investigations:only severe cases investigated – inject...

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    Dry eye syndrome (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)

    by  • 29/07/2014

    Definition: occurs when there is a problem with the tear film that normally keeps the eye moist and lubricated. It can occur as a result of various conditions.The tear film is made up from three layers – the main middle watery layer, the thin outer lipid (oily) layer, and the thin inner mucus layer....

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    by  • 26/07/2014

    Definition: is caused by either no transmission or poor transmission of the visual stimulation through the optic nerve to the brain for a sustained period of dysfunction or during early childhood thus resulting in poor or dim vision Classification / type of disease: Strabismic amblyopia: amblyopia caused by excessive strabismus Abnormal vision in abnormal...

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    by  • 25/07/2014

    Treatment / management:   Surgery does not change the vision; it attempts to align the eyes by shortening, lengthening, or changing the position of one or more of the extraocular eye muscles and is frequently the only way to achieve cosmetic improvement. Glasses affect the position by changing the person’s reaction to focusing. Prisms...

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    by  • 22/07/2014

    Presenting symptoms / signs:One eye moves normally, while the other points in (esotropia), out (exotropia), up (hypertropia) or down (hypotropia), double vision is a common symptom. Diagnostic investigations:  ‘The Cover Test’ = to aid in the diagnosis of strabismus. If the eye being tested is the strabismic eye, then it will fixate on the object...

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    Squints / misaligned eyes (= strabismus)

    by  • 20/07/2014

    Definition: a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. Classification / type of disease: ‘wandering’ can be either uni-/bilateral. Strabismus can be congenital, acquired or secondary in nature Paralytic strabismus: Third (oculomotor) nerve palsy, Fourth (trochlear) nerve palsy, Congenital fourth nerve palsy, Sixth (abducent) nerve palsy, Total (external) ophthalmoplegia, Progressive...

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    Vitreous haemorrhage

    by  • 16/07/2014

    Definition: bleeding into the middle chamber of the eye obscuring vision. Often self limiting and will resolve spontaneously, but may need investigation for its cause – often diabetic retinopathy Classification / type of disease: Epidemiology Presenting symptoms / signs: Sudden onset of floaters causing impaired vision or total loss of vision. Depending on the...

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    Retinal detachment

    by  • 16/07/2014

    Definition: is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. Initial detachment may be localized, but without rapid treatment the entire retina may detach, leading to vision loss and blindness. It is a medical emergency. Classification / type of disease: Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment –...

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